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Dolor en el Hombro

Posted by WEBMASTER on July 22, 2017 at 7:50 PM

Es el dolor que se sitúa en la región de la articulación del hombro y que aparece al mover el brazo. Es muy común que las consultas médicas sean de este tipo, y llega a afectar al 25% de la población en algún momento de la vida. Aparece más frecuentemente en personas de mayor edad o que realizan trabajos pesados, que involucren mucho la articulación.

El hombro es una articulación muy compleja además de brindar mucha movilidad, su función principal es llevar la mano a la posición en la que esta debe trabajar. Por lo tanto cuando se produce dolor a nivel del hombro, una buena parte de las acciones del brazo y de nuestra mano se encuentran muy limitadas.


Las causas del dolor en el hombro son muy variables, aquí es donde el médico debe ser muy acucioso e investigar mediante la historia clínica y el examen físico la verdadera causa del problema. Dicho dolor puede ser debido a lesiones propias de la articulación, de los músculos o de los tendones y de los ligamentos que la componen (intrínsecas). En ocasiones, lesiones más distantes a la articulación también producen dolor en dicha zona (extrínsecas). También el uso excesivo del hombro puede causar que el tejido blando (ligamentos, tendones, músculos) se deteriore más rápidamente a medida que las personas van envejeciendo.


La mayoría de personas refieren que el dolor aparece con los movimientos del hombro, al principio limita un poco la movilidad aunque luego impide realizar ciertos movimientos. A veces duele más por la noche debido al movimiento continuo que se le da al hombro durante el día; en otros casos el dolor es tan intenso y agudo que también puede doler la región del cuello, antebrazo y mano. En casos muy graves puede haber pérdida completa de la movilidad.

Diagnóstico y Tratamiento

El diagnostico lo dará el médico, por eso es muy importante la consulta, ya que es muy común que las personas no consultan a tiempo y las lesiones se agravan. El medico mediante el examen físico determinara que el dolor proviene únicamente del hombro y que al movimiento se intensifica. A veces pueden realizarse otros estudios como los rayos X, aunque solo son necesarios en caso que la lesión lleve mucho tiempo o el paciente no responde adecuadamente al tratamiento.

El tratamiento se basa en aliviar de una manera adecuada e inmediata el dolor. Para eso se utiliza tratamientos farmacológicos como el uso de analgésicos y antiinflamatorios orales. Se debe tener la articulación en reposo, sin realizar esfuerzos, pero evitando inmovilizarla con vendajes u otros materiales.

A veces el dolor es tan intenso que se necesitan medidas inmediatas, ahí es donde entran las aplicaciones y las infiltraciones (inyecciones) de esteroides y anestésicos dentro de la articulación del hombro. Debe realizarlo una persona capacitada porque, si no tiene experiencia con este tipo de procedimientos puede dañar aún más el hombro. Por ultimo uno de los pilares fundamentales es la rehabilitación que consiste en la realización de ejercicios que mejoran la movilidad del hombro, se deben realizar con frecuencia y de manera progresiva, sin provocar dolor.

Categories: Problemas articulares, Enfermedades cronicas

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